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currency: New Taiwan Dollar (TWD)
Population
Official languages
Area
Life expectancy
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National anthem
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Taiwan profile
strategic location adjacent to both the Taiwan Strait and the Luzon Strait
Taiwan history
In 1895, military defeat forced China's Qing Dynasty to cede Taiwan to Japan. Taiwan came under Chinese Nationalist control after World War II. Following the Communist victory on the mainland in 1949, 2 million Nationalists fled to Taiwan and established a government using the 1947 constitution drawn up for all of China. Beginning in the 1950s, the ruling authorities gradually democratized and incorporated the local population within the governing structure. This process expanded rapidly in the 1980s. In 2000, Taiwan underwent its first peaceful transfer of power from the Nationalist to the Democratic Progressive Party. Throughout this period, the island prospered and became one of East Asia's economic "Tigers." The dominant political issues continue to be the relationship between Taiwan and China - specifically the question of Taiwan's eventual status - as well as domestic political and economic reform.
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Conventional long form: none

Conventional short form: Taiwan

Local long form: none

Local short form: Taiwan

Formerly known as: Formosa
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Taiwan's capital city is Taipei
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Taiwan Constitution:

adopted 25 December 1946;
promulgated 1 January 1947;
effective 25 December 1947;
amended many times
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Taiwan population growth rate: 0.29%
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Taiwan highest point: Yu Shan 3,952 m
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Taiwan lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
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About 24% of Taiwan's land is arable.
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Taiwan birth rate is 9 births/1,000 population
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Taiwan infant mortality rate is 5 deaths/1,000 live births
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Taiwan fertility rate is 1.11 children born/woman
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Taiwan climate:

tropical;
marine;
rainy season during southwest monsoon (June to August);
cloudiness is persistent and extensive all year
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Top 10 cities of Taiwan with populations (2012 est.) are:
1. New Taipei: 3,913,595
2. Kaohsiung: 2,773,855
3. Taichung: 2,662,770
4. Taipei: 2,647,122
5. Tainan: 1,876,706
6. Hsinchu: 419,384
7. Taoyuan: 409,796
8. Keelung: 380,281
9. Zhongli: 372,117
10. Chiayi: 271,594
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Taiwan ethnic groups:

Taiwanese (including Hakka) - 84%
mainland Chinese - 14%
indigenous - 2%
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Taiwan Exports:

electronics, flat panels, machinery; metals; textiles, plastics, chemicals; optical, photographic, measuring, and medical instruments
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Taiwan Imports:

electronics, machinery, crude petroleum, precision instruments, organic chemicals, metals
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unicameral Legislative Yuan (113 seats - 73 district members elected by popular vote, 34 at-large members elected on basis of proportion of islandwide votes received by participating political parties, 6 elected by popular vote among aboriginal populations; members to serve four-year terms); parties must receive 5% of vote to qualify for at-large seats

Administrative Divisions:
counties:
1. Changhua
2. Chiayi (county)
3. Hsinchu (county)
4. Hualien
5. Kinmen
6. Lienchiang
7. Miaoli
8. Nantou
9. Penghu
10. Pingtung
11. Taitung
12. Taoyuan
13. Yilan
14. Yunlin

municipalities:
1. Chiayi (city)
2. Hsinchu (city)
3. Keelung (city)

special municipalities:
1. Kaohsiung (city)
2. New Taipei (city)
3. Taichung (city)
4. Tainan (city)
5. Taipei (city)
Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) - SU Tseng-chang

Kuomintang (KMT) (Nationalist Party) - MA Ying-jeou

New Party - YOK Mu-ming

Non-Partisan Solidarity Union (NPSU) - LIN Pin-kuan

People First Party (PFP) - James SOONG